Presidential Elections 2022: How Is India’s President Elected?

The President is elected by an electoral college, which includes members of state assemblies and the Parliament.

2 min read
<div class="paragraphs"><p>Presidential Elections 2022: How Is India’s President Elected?</p></div>

The Indian Presidential Election 2022 has already started creating a buzz with speculation mounting over who would be the candidates backed by Opposition and the ruling BJP.

Among the names to have recently cropped up in the speculation was that of NCP supremo Sharad Pawar. However, calling such speculations 'absolutely untrue', Pawar claimed that he knows what the result will be, seeing that the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has more than 300 MPs.

But, before the next president is elected, Assembly polls for Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Goa, Uttarakhand, and Manipur are scheduled to be held.

President Ram Nath Kovind is due to vacate the office in July next year. So how is the President of India elected? Do people directly vote for the President?

Here’s all you need to know:

Who Elects the President?

The President is elected by an electoral college, which comprises of elected members of:

  1. All state legislative assemblies (including Puducherry and Delhi)

  2. Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha

The 12 nominated members of Rajya Sabha are not allowed to vote.

In essence, 4,120 members of legislative assemblies and 776 members of parliament elect the President.

What Is the Value of an MLA's Vote?

The value of an MLA’s vote varies from state to state, in order to reflect the population of each state.

To arrive at this value, the total population of the state (1971 census) is divided by the total number of MLAs in the state, multiplied by 1,000.

By this calculation, the value of one MLA’s vote in Delhi is 58, 218 in Uttar Pradesh and just seven in Sikkim.

Similarly the total value of all MLA votes in Delhi is 4,060, Uttar Pradesh is 83,824 and Sikkim is 224.

This bring the total value of all MLA votes to 5,49,495.

What Is the Value of an MP's Vote?

The value of the vote of a member of parliament is the same across Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha, it is 708.

This is calculated by dividing the total value of MLA votes by the number of elected MPs in both houses. Therefore, 5,49,495 divided by 776, which gives you 708.

A total value of votes of all elected MLAs and MPs gives us the final number of votes in the electoral college, which is 10,98,903.


How Is the Voting Done?

Suppose, there are four presidential candidates in the official ballot. Now, each MLA and MP ranks presidential candidates in order of preference. In order to win, a candidate must get more than 50 percent of the votes.

If no candidate reaches that mark based on first preference across ballots, the preferential system comes into action.

The candidate with the lowest number of votes drops out. Then, the votes given to this candidate are redistributed based on next preference. This goes on till one candidate gets the needed majority.

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