By becoming the first president to be impeached twice, Donald Trump’s controversial and divisive term as president is reaching a surreal ending. Although he will likely remain in office and finish his term on 20 January, the impeachment is the opening salvo of investigations and allegations of wrongdoing that will define his legacy.
After Joe Biden assumes the presidency, Trump may face criminal and civil charges at both the federal and state levels for actions before and during his tenure as president.
He’s reportedly so nervous about the ongoing investigations that his discussions with advisers about pardoning himself and his children have intensified since he incited the raid on the US Capitol on 6 January. Some of them have warned against it.
The Federal Scene
As president, Trump was protected from prosecution because of a long-standing Justice Department policy that sitting presidents . Rather, Congress, via impeachment, has the power to punish a president for wrongdoing.
But with the end of Trump’s presidency, the US attorney general in the Biden administration could charge him for criminal wrongdoing that occurred while he was in office. The federal government could begin to investigate Trump for income tax evasion while he was in office and prior to his election in 2016.
There is a long tradition in the United States of using tax evasion charges when other means to prosecute fail.
Even after Trump’s outrageous behaviour during the last weeks of his presidency and his impeachment, and even if there is evidence of tax evasion, it remains unlikely that Biden will authorise the unprecedented step of the federal government taking a former president to court on criminal charges.
At the same time, failing to charge Trump if there’s sufficient evidence uncovered to warrant charges, creates a situation in which presidents solidify their immunity. As Biden himself noted in August: "I don’t think anyone’s above the law.”
Regardless of the rhetoric about justice being blind, any decision to charge Trump with a federal criminal offence is at least partly political and will rest with Biden. At the moment, it continues to be improbable that Trump will face federal charges.
The State of New York
Although these investigations and potential charges are the responsibility of a Democratic state government, ultimately Biden could call the shots. Regardless of the constitutional independence of state governments, the decision to charge Trump in New York could be made from the Oval Office given the political ramifications and the .
However, the calculus might be different than for federal crimes, in that charges laid in New York provide a degree of cover and distance for the Democrats in Washington. Nevertheless, it is doubtful that Biden will see much advantage for his administration in seeing Trump charged in New York.
The Civil Landscape
These are the weakest of the legal cases Trump will face, given he’s merely accused of lying rather than having engaged in unlawful behaviour, despite 26 women accusing him of sexually assaulting them. At the moment, it’s probable that these cases against Trump will result in a monetary payment or an apology.
Some might hope Trump’s second impeachment and the legal proceedings that could be about to begin against him will bring a measure of censure and closure to his term in office and redress some of his excesses in the White House.
But this isn’t likely to happen as the political cost to prosecute an ex-president is extraordinarily high and also runs the risk of making him a martyr to his base.
(This is an opinion piece and the views expressed above are the author’s own. The Quint neither endorses nor is responsible for them. This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article here.)