Video Editors: Abhishek Sharma and Prashant Chauhan
(This story was first published on 25 October 2023 and is being republished with updates from The Quint's archives 100 days after the most recent Israel-Hamas conflict and subsequent attacks on Palestine.).
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Today marks 100 days since the conflict between Israel and Gaza began. The death toll among Palestinians in Gaza has reached nearly 24,000, with over 65,000 tonnes of bombs unleashed by Israel in the densely populated enclave, Al Jazeera reports.
The assault, most recently triggered by an attack from armed groups including Hamas' Qassam Brigades, resulted in 1,140 deaths and 240 captives in Israel, many of whom were later freed.
Israel responded with a severe bombing campaign, only intensifying the already challenging situation in Gaza, under siege since 2007.
Over 60,000 people, including 8,663 children and 6,327 women, have been injured. Tent camps have emerged, and a majority of the population faces severe food shortages, with nine out of 10 people going without food for 24 hours or more, reports said.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu dismissed the International Court of Justice's involvement in a genocide case against Israel filed by South Africa, stating that it cannot end the conflict in Gaza.
With the death toll in the conflict only increasing and the humanitarian crisis in Gaza continuing, The Quint takes a look at the history of the Israel-Palestine conflict. Here's an A-Z guide on what the conflict is about.
A: Al Aqsa
The mosque in East Jerusalem's Old City was raided by the Israeli Army in 2021. ‘Operation Al-Aqsa Flood’ is believed to have been carried out by Hamas militants in retaliation.
The Balfour declaration from the British government in 1917 endorsed the creation of a "National home for the Jewish people" in Palestine.
C: Camp David Summit
The Camp David Summit was a meeting between then-US President Bill Clinton, then-Israel PM Ehud Barak, and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. The 2000 summit was an effort to end the conflict.
D: Dome of Rock
An Islamic shrine at the centre of the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, it is the ‘the most sensitive site’ in the Old City of Jerusalem. It is sacred for both Muslims and Jews.
After the Britishers, Egypt occupied Gaza from 1948-1967 until the third Arab-Israel war. The Rafah border crossing is the southernmost crossing between Gaza and Egypt which is currently shut.
F: First Intifada
In the late 1980s, the First ‘Intifada’ was a period of protests and demonstrations, against Israeli occupation in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
One of the most densely populated territories in the world, Gaza is nestled between Israel, the Mediterranean Sea, and Egypt.
Governing the Gaza Strip, the Islamist militant group was established in late 1987 during the first Palestinian ‘Intifada’.
Founded in1948, Israel has been in a conflict with Palestinians and Arab states over the ownership of the land that holds religious significance for Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Both Israelis and Palestinians assert their claim over the city as their capital leading to significant confrontations.
An Israeli collective settlement dedicated to mutual aid, social justice, and based on the principle of equality and cooperation.
Lebanon’s role is defined with its geographical proximity, political landscape, and historical connections to Palestinian refugees, and the presence of Hezbollah and militant organisations in the region.
M: Mohammed Deif
The Commander of the Hamas Military, Mohammed Deif is reportedly the mastermind behind ‘Al-Aqsa flood’, an operation ‘in response to Israel’s raid of Al-Aqsa Mosque’ in 2021.
Located in the West Bank, Nablus has been a focal point for political and social activity within the Palestinian territories.
O: Oslo Accords
A set of agreements between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organisation that established the peace process through mutual negotiations.
The West Bank, lying to the east of Israel and the Gaza Strip, positioned between the Mediterranean Sea Israel and Egypt constitutes Palestinian territory.
Q: Qassam Brigades
Established in 1991 as Hamas' military arm, the Qassam Brigades is the largest and most well-equipped faction operating in Gaza.
R- Rafah Crossing
The Rafah border crossing is the southernmost exit from Gaza. The crossing is controlled by Egypt and it is the only entry point for humanitarian aid.
S: Al Shifa Hospital
The largest medical complex in Gaza is currently overwhelmed with causalities from the areas bombed by Israel.
T: Tel Aviv
Situated on Israel’s central-western coastline, Tel Aviv is the country's second-most populous city and its economic and financial centre.
U: United Nations
The United Nations General Secretary Antonio Guterres has called for an immediate ceasefire. He has appealed to Hamas to release hostages and for Israel to allow humanitarian aid into Gaza.
According to the UN, the rights of civilians in Israel and Palestinian territory have been violated by authorities through harassment, threats, arrests, arbitrary detention, torture, and inhuman treatment.
W: West Bank
Palestine’s territory lies to the west of the Jordan River. It has been under military occupation of Israel since 1967.
X: Social Media Platform X
Posts on X (formerly Twitter) have used fake images of the Israel-Hamas conflict, perpetuating disinformation and heightening tensions.
Y: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat chaired the Palestinian Liberation Organization and played a crucial role in the 1993 Oslo Accords, a pivotal moment in peace talks with Israel.
The political-ideological movement emerged in the late 19th century seeking to establish a Jewish homeland in historic Palestine, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire.