The resignations of MLAs K Sudhakar and MTB Nagaraj on Wednesday, 10 July, have brought down the strength of the Congress-Janata Dal (Secular) government to 100 in the 224-strong Assembly.Karnataka crisis: Experts say rebel MLAs can't be disqualifiedThe coalition government’s numbers are far below that of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP), which has the support of 107 MLAs. However, Chief Minister HD Kumaraswamy, on Friday, said that he will not resign.“Why should I resign? What is the necessity?” he told the media. When asked how he could continue since 16 MLAs had resigned, he recalled the events which took place in 2009, where the government continued to function even after 18 MLAs had withdrawn their support to the BJP government, led by BS Yeddyurappa. “Did he resign then?” asked Kumaraswamy.Too busy to read the story? Listen to it here:‘Shameful Power-mongering’: Bengaluru Fumes Over Political CrisisOne of the reasons for Kumaraswamy’s nonchalant response is the fact that the state has seen at least nine political crises in the past five decades, and five of them happened between 2006 and 2019. From resort politics to mass defections to ruckus in the Assembly, Karnataka politics has seen it all in the past few years. Here are some major political crises the state has grappled with in the previous five decades.‘It Could End in a Week or Take a Month’: Speaker on K’Taka CrisisThe First Political CrisisDevaraj Urs is the only chief minister in Karnataka to have finished a full five-year-term and get re-elected. He was also the architect of Indira Gandhi’s political resurrection after the Emergency, in the 1978 Chikkamagaluru by-election.However, by 1979, the equation between Urs and Gandhi deteriorated with respect to Sanjay Gandhi’s return to the Congress party after the Emergency. The Congress party soon split into Congress (Indira) and Congress (Urs).Within months, the Congress (I) brought in a vote of no confidence. But, Urs, who had more MLAs with him, proved his majority and continued to hold power.However, the Congress soon secured the defections of several MLAs and demanded a floor test in 1980. This time, after serving for a year and 313 days, Chief Minister Urs, in his second term, lost power. He was replaced by Congress (I) leader Gundu Rao, who finished the term.This was the first case in Karnataka wherein the poaching of MLAs resulted in the government collapsing.Coalition Loses Majority, But DK Shivakumar Wins Perception BattleThe Failed Poaching Attempt in 1983The first coalition government in Karnataka was formed in 1983. The Janata Party joined hands with Kranti Ranga (a party floated by Devaraj Urs) and the BJP; Ramakrishna Hegde became the chief minister of the coalition government.During this time, C Byre Gowda, an Independent member of the Assembly, accused Congress leader Veerappa Moily of offering him Rs 2 lakh to defect to the Congress (I). Byre Gowda, who recorded the conversation on a Walkman, produced the tape as evidence.An investigation was ordered into the matter, however, the case was later dismissed as the authenticity of the tape could not be verified.Ramakrishna Hedge Dissolves His Own Government in 1984In 1984, after Indira Gandhi’s assassination, under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi, the Congress swept the general elections. Even in Karnataka, the Congress won 24 out of the 28 seats. Taking moral responsibility for the loss, Ramakrishna Hegde dissolved the government and called for fresh elections.In the Assembly elections held in 1985, the people of Karnataka, who had voted for the Congress in the parliamentary elections, brought the Janata Party to power with a large majority. Hedge continued as the chief minister.During this time, Karnataka saw its first instance of resort politics. Following a political crisis in Andhra Pradesh, then Chief Minister NT Rama Rao sought Hedge’s help to save his government. The TDP MLAs were then taken from Karnataka to two resorts in Mysuru and Bengaluru. Rama Rao later won the floor test.The Famous Bommai CaseIn 1988, Ramakrishna Hedge resigned as the chief minister, after several allegations of corruption were levelled against him. He was replaced by senior Janata Party leader SR Bommai. The political developments during his tenure and the court case which followed, became the legal precedents for many other political crises in the country.In September 1988, the Janata Party merged with Lok Dal and formed the Janata Dal. However, in September 1988, one of the legislators from the party defected from the party and gave a letter to then Karnataka Governor P Venkatasubbaiah, claiming 19 MLAs with him, had withdrawn support from the Karnataka government.The Governor sent a report to the President claiming that the Bommai government didn’t have the majority to run the government. Later, seven MLAs distanced themselves from the letter and Bommai asked for a chance to prove majority. However, his government was dismissed by the Governor.This led to the famous SR Bommai vs Union case. In the landmark judgement, the Supreme Court spelt out restrictions to prevent the misuse of Article 356 of the Constitution. This included mandating a floor test before dissolving the government and giving adequate time to the state before dissolving the government among others.The Sandal Attack in 1994On Thursday, 11 July, Congress legislators were seen whisking away MLA D Sudhakar after he submitted his resignation in the ongoing political crisis. Sudhakar later alleged that he had been manhandled in the process.But such ruckus is not new to Karnataka politics. In 1994, after the Janata Dal won majority, a meeting of legislators was called to choose the chief minister. During this meeting, former Chief Minister Ramakrishna Hedge was assaulted with footwear by one of the party workers.In subsequent meetings, Deve Gowda was elected as the chief minister by the party.JD(S) Ditches Congress in 2006After 1983, the state saw fractured mandate again in 2004. Following the 2004 Assembly elections, the BJP had emerged as the single-largest party in Karnataka with 79 seats, followed by the Congress with 65 and the JD(S) with 58 seats.Congress and JD(S) struck a deal to form a coalition government. Despite JD(S) leader HD Kumaraswamy bargaining for the post of the chief minister, it went to Congress’s Dharam Singh.After 19 months, the coalition began to crumble. Several reasons were given for the fallout, including the Congress’ attempt to poach Siddaramiah, who was then a part of JD(S); Congress not entering a coalition with JD(S) for the local body elections; and rumours that the Congress was planning to go for a midterm election.JD(S) Ditches BJP in 2007After ruling for 19 months, the JD(S) withdrew support for the Congress and the JD(S) MLAs were flown to a resort in Goa. Within a few days, a new deal was forged between the BJP and the JD(S) to form a new government.As per the deal, the chief ministership was to be shared between Kumaraswamy and BS Yeddyurappa for an equal period of time. The first chance at chief ministership was given to Kumarswamy, while Yeddyurappa was to serve as his deputy.As part of the power-sharing agreement, Kumaraswamy was to step down from the post of chief minister on 3 October 2007. But when the time came to do so, he refused. This forced Yeddyurappa and all the ministers from his party to resign and on 5 October, the BJP formally withdrew support from the Kumaraswamy government.Karnataka came under President's rule, which was revoked on 7 November after the JD(S) and the BJP decided to continue with the alliance and make Yeddyurappa the chief minister. Yeddyurappa was sworn in on 12 November 2007 as the Chief Minister of Karnataka and remained in power for seven days before JD(S) withdrew its support.2009 Rebellion Within BJPIn 2009, senior BJP leader Jandardhana Reddy staged a rebellion against then Chief Minister BS Yeddyurappa. On Reddy’s instructions, 43 MLAs resigned and left for a resort in Hyderabad.However, Yeddyurappa refused to accept the resignations. He presented a compromise by offering the MLAs cabinet berths.Months later, Yeddyurappa found himself embroiled in a crisis again, with 18 BJP MLAs withdrawing support to his government. At the time, Kumaraswamy was accused of bringing together dissident BJP MLAs.2018 Political CrisisThe 2018 Assembly election presented a fractured mandate. The BJP emerged as single-largest party with 104 members, while the Congress with 78 and the JD(S) with 37 MLAs formed an alliance.Both the BJP and the Congress-JD(S) staked claimed to form the government. But Karnataka Governor Vajubhai Vala invited the BJP to form the government and asked BS Yeddyurappa to take oath as chief minister on 17 May.Congress then moved Supreme Court against the governor’s invitation to the BJP. SC, post the midnight hearing on 17 May, refused to stay the oath-taking ceremony of Yeddyurappa.At 9 am, BS Yeddyurappa took oath as the chief minister of the state but the SC ordered a floor test at 4 pm on 19 May, in a subsequent hearing.At 4 pm on 19 May, Yeddyurappa announced in the floor, “I will not face confidence vote; I am going to resign.”The chronic political instability in Karnataka is largely a result of the three main parties. The state has consistently seen fractured mandates, barring a few exceptions. Caste differences and the firm footing of local leaders has also made it difficult for any one party to get a majority. We'll get through this! 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