Despite Growth, K’taka Fares Poorly on ‘Woman Empowerment’ Front
Karnataka has amongst India’s best economic and child health outcomes, but women’s empowerment lags some of India’s poorest states, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of national data.
Ahead of the election to the state’s assembly on 12 May 2018, we compared Karnataka’s performance on 15 socio-economic and health-related indicators —sourced from National Family Health Surveys 2005-06 (NFHS 3) and 2015-16 (NFHS 4), Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation and Ministry of Labour and Employment – with nine other states.
- Among the states, Karnataka has the country’s second lowest unemployment rate, behind only Gujarat. Karnataka’s per capita income ranks fourth among the 10 states considered for the analysis;
- Karnataka’s infant mortality rate declined from 43.2 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2005-06 to 26.9 in 2015-16, ranking fifth among the 10 states analysed;
- In 2015-16, 49.3 percent women in Karnataka were involved in household decision-making, better only than Bihar, Telangana and Mizoram;
- In 2015-16, 62.6 percent children (12-23 months) in Karnataka received all basic vaccinations, up from 55 percent in 2005-06. Karnataka ranks fifth among the 10 states considered for the analysis.
For our analysis, we chose south Indian states – Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, development leaders Goa, Gujarat and Maharashtra and laggards Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
For the period of analysis (2005-06 to 2015-16), the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) governed Karnataka for seven years until Congress took over in 2013 – the last assembly elections.
Of the other nine states, six – Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Goa and Gujarat – currently have BJP governments.
Kerala is under the Left Democratic Front, while Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are ruled by the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Telugu Desam Party, respectively.
Karnataka Has Among Country’s Lowest Child Mortality Rates
In 2015-16, Karnataka’s infant mortality rate (IMR) – the probability that a child born in a particular year will die before reaching the age of one – was 26.9 per 1,000 live births, down from 43.2 in 2005-06. Karnataka’s IMR was lower than the national average (40.7) and ranked fifth among the 10 states considered for the analysis.
At 31.5 deaths per 1,000 live births, the state’s under-five mortality rate also ranked fifth among the 10 states – worse than Kerala, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.
In 2015-16, 62.6 percent children – just above the national average of 62 percent –aged 12-23 months, received all basic vaccinations in Karnataka, up from 55 percent in 2005-06, according to national health data.
To have received all basic vaccinations, a child must receive at least one dose of BCG vaccine, which protects against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine.
Karnataka ranked fifth among the 10 states considered for the analysis.
In 2015-16, 58.1 percent women said it is justified for a husband to hit/beat his wife for any one of seven stated reasons – going out without telling him, neglecting the house or children, arguing with him, refusing sex, not cooking properly, showing disrespect for in-laws or if he suspects she is unfaithful. This was more than the national average of 51.7 percent, and worse than poorer states such as Uttar Pradesh (51.3 percent), Bihar (53.4 percent) and Rajasthan (33.4 percent).
In the same year, 57.5 percent men in Karnataka said it was justified, more than the national average of 42.2 percent, and worse than poorer states such as Uttar Pradesh (41.6 percent), Bihar (38.1 percent) and Rajasthan (30.4 percent).
Over the decade to 2015-16, the percentage of ever-married women (15-49 years) who have ever faced emotional, physical or sexual violence by husband/previous partners in Karnataka rose from 21.5 percent in 2005-06 to 24.4 percent. Though this is lower than the national average (31 percent), it was higher than in Goa, Kerala, Gujarat and Maharashtra among the 10 states selected.
In 2015-16, 32.7 percent women (15-64 years) in Karnataka were part of the labour force, higher than the national average female labour force participation of 23.7 percent, according to the Ministry of Labour and Employment’s Fifth Annual Employment-Unemployment Survey 2015-16.
Karnataka is ranked fourth on this indicator among the 10 states considered for the analysis – behind Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.
In 2015-16, Karnataka’s female literacy rate (71.7 percent) ranked sixth among the 10 states, better only than Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The state ranked 23rd of 36 states and union territories nationwide.
Meanwhile, 45.4 percent women in the state completed 10 or more years of education – behind Kerala, Goa and Tamil Nadu – data from NFHS-4 show.
While 85.1 percent men in Karnataka were literate in 2015-16, 55.2 percent completed 10 or more years of education, data show.
Overall, 87.9 percent of Karnataka’s children aged six-17 years were attending school in 2015-16, up from 73.3 percent a decade ago. Karnataka ranks fourth among the 10 states on this parameter.
In 2015-16, 89.3 percent households in Karnataka had access to an improved source of drinking water – including piped connections, public taps, tube-wells or boreholes, protected dug-wells and springs, rainwater or community reverse osmosis plant. The state ranked seventh of 10 states analysed.
Meanwhile, 65.8 percent households in Karnataka had a toilet facility – up from 46.5 percent in 2005-06 – ranking fifth among 10 states considered for the analysis.
Karnataka Has India’s Second-Lowest Unemployment Rate
At 1.5 percent, Karnataka’s unemployment rate in 2015-16 was India’s second-lowest, behind only Gujarat, according to data from the ministry of labour and employment. The national average was five percent.
The state’s per capita income in 2014-15 — year for which latest state-wise data were available — was Rs 125,832, more than the national average of Rs 86,454 that year. Karnataka ranked fourth among the 10 states evaluated.
(The story was originally published on IndiaSpend and has been republished with permission.)
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